Omega 3 Supplements and Oils - Research Material


The following articles and books were studied during the course of the Omega 3 Supplements and Oils Project.

Fish oil supplements

Author Article Title or Book Name Citation, Source or ISBN
Bays et al Prescription omega-3 fatty acids and their lipid effects: physiologic mechanisms of action and clinical implications Expert Rev. Cardiovasc. Ther. 6(3), 391-409 (2008)
Bays Safety Considerations with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapy (abstract) American Journal of Cardiology Volume 99, Issue 6, Supplement 1, Pages S35-S43, 19 March 2007
Brenna et al ISSFAL Official Statement Number 5 alpha-Linolenic Acid Supplementation and Conversion to n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans ISSFAL website
Chow Fatty Acids in Foods and their Health Implications ISBN 0-8493-7261-5 ISBN 978-0-8493-7261-2
Dall and Bays Addressing Lipid Treatment Targets Beyond Cholesterol: A Role for Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapy Southern Medical Journal Volume 102, Issue 4, Pages 390-396 April 2009
Giuseppe et al Alcohol consumption and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy men and women from 3 European populations Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:354-62
Harris Expert Opinion: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Bleeding - Cause for Concern? (abstract) American Journal of Cardiology Volume 99, Issue 6, Supplement 1, Pages S44-S46, 19 March 2007
Horrocks and Yeo Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Foods: Production and Effects on Blood Lipids Lipids 34, S313 (1999)
Horrocks and Yeo Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (abstract) Pharmacol Res. 1999 Sep;40(3):211-25
ISSFAL Recommendations for Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Adults International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids Ð Report on Dietary Intake of Essential Fatty Acids
Koletzko Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women British Journal of Nutrition (2007)
Ka He Fish, Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Ð Eat Fish or Take Fish Oil Supplement? (abstract) Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 95-114 (September 2009)
Ka He et al Intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish in relation to measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1111-8
Lands Fish and Human Health ISBN 0-12-435645-1
Leon et al Effect of fish oil on arrhythmias and mortality: systematic review BMJ 2009;338:a2931
London et al Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prior Studies and Recommendations for Future Research Circulation 2007;116;e320-e335
Massaro et al Nutraceuticals and Prevention of Atherosclerosis: Focus on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mediterranean Diet Polyphenols Cardiovascular Therapeutics 28 (2010) e13-e19
MedlinePlus Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid MedlinePlus website (www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus)
Mozaffarian and Rimm Fish Intake, Contaminants and Human Health Ð Evaluating the Risks and Benefits JAMA October 18, 2006 Ð Vol 296, No. 15
Musiek et al Electrophilic Cyclopentenone Neuroprostanes Are Anti-Inflammatory Mediators Formed from the Peroxidation of the n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid The Journal of Biological Chemistry Vol 283 No. 29 pp. 19927-19935 July 18, 2008
Muskiet et al Is Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Essential? Lessons from DHA Status Regulation, Our Ancient Diet, Epidemiology and Randomized Controlled Trials American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 134: 183-186, 2004
Richardson Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders International Review of Psychiatry, April 2006; 18(2): 155-172
Sadovsky et al Dispelling the myths about omega-3 fatty acids (abstract) Postgrad Med. 2008 (PMID: 18654074)
Simopoulos The Omega Diet ISBN 978-0-06-093023-3
Wang et al n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:5-17
Yehuda Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Brain-Related Functions Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
Yurko-Mauro Cognitive and cardiovascular benefits of docosahexaenoic acid in aging and cognitive decline (abstract) U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (PMID: 20088810)


Algae supplements

Author Article Title or Book Name Citation, Source or ISBN
Coutteau FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 361 - Manual on the production and use of live food for aquaculture Ð 2 Micro-Algae Fisheries and Aquaculture Department website (www.fao.org)
Food Standards Australia New Zealand DHASCO and ARASCO Oils as Sources of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Formula Ð a Safety Assessment ISBN 0 642 34532 5 Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2003
Holton et al Fatty Acids in Blue-Green Algae: Possible Relation to Phylogenetic Position (abstract) Science 3 May 1968: Vol. 160. No. 3827, pp. 545-547
Kenyon Fatty Acid Composition of Unicellular Strains of Blue-Green Algae Journal of Bacteriology, Feb 1972, Vol. 109, No. 2, p. 827-834 American Society for Microbiology
Kolb et al Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica) as Food Supplements Food Technol. Biotechnol. 42 (1) 57-61 (2004)
Leano Growth and fatty acid production of thraustochytrids from Panay mangroves, Philippines Fungal Diversity website (www.fungaldiversity.org)
Murata et al Dietary Fish Oil and Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) Synergistically Decrease Rat Serum and Liver Triacylglycerol J. Nutr. 132:742-747, 2002 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences
Murata et al Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation Enzyme Activities Are Stimulated in Rats Fed Brown Seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) The Journal of Nutrition Vol 129 No. 1, 1 January 1999, pp. 145-151
Yokochi et al Optimization of docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 (preview) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (1998) 49: 72-76


Seed oils

Author Article Title or Book Name Citation, Source or ISBN
Brenna et al ISSFAL Official Statement Number 5 alpha-Linolenic Acid Supplementation and Conversion to n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans ISSFAL website
Chow Fatty Acids in Foods and their Health Implications ISBN 0-8493-7261-5 ISBN 978-0-8493-7261-2
Harris Expert Opinion: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Bleeding - Cause for Concern? (abstract) American Journal of Cardiology Volume 99, Issue 6, Supplement 1, Pages S44-S46, 19 March 2007
ISSFAL Recommendations for Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Adults International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids Ð Report on Dietary Intake of Essential Fatty Acids
Ka He Fish, Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Ð Eat Fish or Take Fish Oil Supplement? (abstract) Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 95-114 (September 2009)
London et al Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prior Studies and Recommendations for Future Research Circulation 2007;116;e320-e335
MedlinePlus Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid MedlinePlus website (www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus)
Muskiet et al Is Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Essential? Lessons from DHA Status Regulation, Our Ancient Diet, Epidemiology and Randomized Controlled Trials American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 134: 183-186, 2004
Simopoulos The Omega Diet ISBN 978-0-06-093023-3
Wang et al n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:5-17
Yehuda Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Brain-Related Functions Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel


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